Gotta post these…too cool…
This may surprise some people (even those who know me personally), but I have actually known who Brad Bird was for most of my life, long before I even saw The Iron Giant for the first time. I was first exposed to his name when I was 8 and The Simpsons first came on, for which Brad served as Executive Consultant, and on occasion director for at least two 1st season episodes. My parents have been taking me to the movies since I was a baby, and because my dad worked in the film business, we always stayed for the end credits. Even at an early age I started to recognize names that would show up again and again. Not just big names like Steven Spielberg, but I’d catch on to actors, writers, directors who would frequently show up. I recognized Brad’s name from The Simpsons simply because I thought Brad Bird was kind of a funny name. Over time, I started watching The Simpsons, and Brad was responsible for directing the season 1 classic episode, Krusty Gets Busted, where Krusty the Clown is framed for robbing a convenience store, and it was the introduction to the villainous Sideshow Bob. It’s a funny episode for many reasons, one of them being that once Krusty’s goofiness is behind bars and Sideshow Bob takes over, he turns the show into an overly-intellectual droll literary hour. But it’s a great episode and it got my attention as a kid. After awhile I started to discover more of Brad’s work, eventually seeing Family Dog, the animated short film from Spielberg’s Amazing Stories series, and I began to think, “man, this guy’s pretty good.”
But everything changed for me on August 6th, 1999. It was the day The Iron Giant was released into theaters. I was 17 years old at the time. There was some pretty bland advertising surrounding the film. As most of us know, the film bombed at the Box Office in part because of Warner’s failure to properly market the film. But I didn’t have doubts going in, because I had heard Brad Bird was directing it, and from what I knew of the past works he had done, there was a chance the movie was going to be good. By the time the end credits rolled, the word “good” for this film was an understatement. Even “great” seemed low on the scale for a film like this. At the time when I saw this movie, it was the single most life changing film I had ever seen. It shattered all my expectations of what I thought an animated film should be. It was a film so beautiful, so powerful in its message, story, and animation, that I never looked at animated films the same way again after this. Before this film, I had been a Disneyite. I based much of what I wanted for myself as an animator, like many people, through Disney films. Pixar had not yet established itself, although Toy Story came out before The Iron Giant and I loved that movie. But it was in no way the pinnacle life altering film that The Iron Giant would become for me. Before when I was into Disney movies I had my sights set on becoming an animator and working for Disney as one. After I saw The Iron Giant, I decided I wanted to become a storyteller, a director, and a filmmaker. The thing that attracted me the most to this film were its moments of darkness. The Giants transformation into a killing machine is frightening and real, and it shook me out of my skin when I saw the sequence played out. This was a character that had suddenly lost all hope in himself. This is someone who lost all faith in the world and turned on a murderous spree. True, in the movie, we never see the Giant actually kill anyone because the consequences would be too great and there would be no turning back for him if he actually ended someones life. It’s only Hogarth who manages to stop him and bring him back from the abyss. But what that sequence also showed me was the things you could do in animated films that Disney could not go. There were people who already knew this if you had watched a lot of Japanese Anime, which tackles far more serious adult subjects for animation. But this was the first American animated feature I had seen that was a family film, but took on serious adult themes, with serious consequences attached to the characters actions. The Giant’s nightmarish transformation was unlike anything I had seen in an animated film. It made me want to tackle darker themes in my own work and my own storytelling.
My sense of humor has always been on the dark side, as have been the themes I wanted to explore in films. In a way, it always felt edgy and cool to me because American Animation rarely ever tackled these areas, or at least, they used to until after The Little Mermaid came out, and it’s like it all suddenly stopped because everyone had their eye on animation as a moneymaker, and nobody wanted to do anything that would scare children and families away. What’s interesting is the Iron Giant helped me unlock my love for films I saw growing up as a kid that were filled with dark themes, such as Pinocchio, The Adventures of Mark Twain, The Secret of Nimh. Even films like The Brave Little Toaster had plenty of moments with frightening imagery, and it was great because these movies were never afraid to scare kids. The simple truth is, unlike what most adults want to believe, kids love to be scared. It’s not about always protecting our children, because as kids…the thing is…what frightens us also intrigues us at the same time. Scary images are burned into our skull because it forces us to ask ourselves why the images frighten us. What is it about watching an animated character in serious peril, or being attacked by a giant monster that makes us want to know where that monster inside us comes from. It frightens us because we know that monster exists in all of us, and we see it exposed when we watch a film that traumatizes our minds. I was much older when I saw The Iron Giant, but the killing spree frightened me just the same, knowing that myself or anyone that I loved could become a killer, or could be knocked off course from wanting to be the beautiful soul that they are.
The soul however is the deeper layer to what The Iron Giant is. I watched a seminar once taught by voice actor, Crispin Freeman, entitled Giant Robots and Superheros, which analyzed the mythological aspects and cultural differences where the Japanese like to write stories about Giant Robots and Americans like stories about Superheroes. The Iron Giant brings the best of both worlds and takes it a step farther. Here is the notion of a giant robot having a soul. A machine having a soul and wanting to be more than it’s limitations. It’s interesting because at the same time this film came out, there was another film that examined this aspect, called The Matrix. That was another film combining machines and spirituality, where in that case the machines became self aware and wanted to turn against humanity, and the human, Neo discovers in his avatar form that he can bend the Matrix to his will, and eventually merging with it. The Iron Giant is more family fare than the darker Matrix films, but at the same time the human element finds its way into The Giant. Through his own spiritual journey he finds not only mentorship through a 9 year old boy, he also discovers Superman, and discovers in himself that is what he wants to be, an empowered being who uses his abilities for goodness in a harsh world. The giant instantly relates to Superman because he is also misunderstood by those around him who fear him as a threat. He is conflicted by his machine body, his ego telling him what he really is, which is an engine for destruction. But he finds he doesn’t want to be that at all. He wants to grow beyond everything he was designed for.
There was a story where during the finale of the film when the Giant sacrifices himself to save the town, somebody in a story meeting for the film asked why didn’t the Giant just take one of his rockets and destroy the missle from a safe distance. Brad’s point was that the Giant wouldn’t do that because it would mean turning himself into a gun, which is not what he wants to be. The message, “You Are Who You Choose To Be”, becomes the center of the Giants whole purpose of being. When I heard those words for myself as a teenager, it became the center of my own being as well. They were powerful words I wanted to live by. It led me down a hard road later in college, because I found myself drifting from the Disney animation status that I thought I wanted from the beginning. I discovered that I came into conflict with my own desires as an artist when animation was suddenly not as important to me. I have always had to struggle with my drawing, I couldn’t keep up with my peers at the time, and overall it made it a struggle for me when I felt I wanted a job vs. what I wanted for myself. In a funny way, I could take The Iron Giant as an example of someone going through the same thing, as he was a being that was in conflict with what he was built for vs. the being he wanted to become, in a decision made on his own. He fights and struggles because his body that he was built to be wants to keep him down and conformed, but his “soul”…and his awakening into his own being is the thing that transforms him and makes him the defining hero he always wanted to be.
What I have learned from this film, and what it has taught me has always been about following your guiding light…your intuition and your spirit to become the person you’ve always wanted to be. This includes deciding how you want to approach your career, what you want to contribute to humanity, deciding the people you want to fall in love with, deciding what you want to take a stand for and what is most important to you. It’s never about following a particular crowd or a religion because many times a religion forces you to fall back on your own body. On the one end, its meant to keep you safe and keep you grounded. But it can also keep you afraid an in the dark from the person you always want to become. It can also tell you there is no other way except what is meant to keep you in line and in fear of following your path. They are the voices in your head telling you not to go off into the woods because they are dangerous, they are full of turmoil, and you can damage yourself far greater when you let go of a chosen belief. The conflict comes when you do go out into the woods, and the voices in your head are constantly telling you to come back, that you are putting yourself in danger and that you cannot survive on your own. It’s why in The Iron Giant, when the Giant thinks Hogarth is dead and all is lost that he falls back on his “machine” life and turns into a weapon of destruction. He doesn’t know yet that the choice is always within him, but because he lost Hogarth, there was no one left to make the choices for him accept himself. And that can be a frightening thing. When we hear the words, “You Are Who You Choose To Be”, it is exactly that. There is no fear in deciding on the person you want to become. We can get angry and conflicted when we suddenly find so many voices making the choices for us that we don’t want there anymore, which is what can lead to anger and a need to strike back.
After I saw The Iron Giant, I wrote Brad two letters. The first one I wrote to him because I was about to become an Eagle Scout. I asked him in a letter to send me a congratulatory card with my Eagle Scout packet. When you reach that level as a boy scout, you can ask for congratulatory letters from The President, Senators, or people you admire. Brad’s card was the most important one in there, because for me having accomplished becoming an Eagle Scout, his card defined the person I wanted to become. Brad has always been that symbol in my mind and my hero for all time and I have continued to aspire to be the image of what Brad is to me and the person I want to be. He’s my “Superman” so to speak. Later on I wrote Brad a second letter just asking him about being a director and how to become one, and he returned with a 2 page letter reply talking about schools, and what it’s like to be a filmmaker. He even ended the letter with the simple words, that no matter where you go or where you end up, never forget the sage advice of young Hogarth Hughes, “You Are Who You Choose To Be”.
What is the film that most defines you as a person or as a filmmaker? I think we all have it in us. The Iron Giant was that film for me. It made me want to be more than the sum of what people in everyday life expected from me. I had to have faith in myself first to find that place for me and decide this is what I want. The search continues throughout our lives as we go from one thing to another, working to follow our path until we find the direction that most defines the person we want to be. It’s what we spend our whole lives searching for, choosing to be who we want to be no matter where the world drops us. It’s up to you to decide what is most important for you and whether your own path is guiding you there. If it isn’t, it could be time for a self examination to get yourself on track. If you can do that, however, that you will discover that the universe is putting you in alignment, and the life you always wanted for yourself will have been laid out for you all along.
This is something I’ve struggled to say for awhile, and I’m sure there are plenty of you die hard Disney lovers who will give me hell for saying it. But I’m going to try and explain in the best way I can why I think The Little Mermaid is a terrible film. It is. I have hated this film since I was a little kid. I have been angry for awhile now how The Walt Disney Company started off back in the day as something so great only to fall apart and take the dark path because of the success of single film. The Little Mermaid, to me, is the movie that destroyed Disney Animation. When I was a kid I not only hated the film, I was too emarassed to tell anyone how much the movie upset me. It was my worry that people would make me out as some kind of self centered egotist for not understanding why a movie that was so successful and loved by so many people, as Ariel would say “…could be bad”? I am worried about what kids will take away with them when they watch a movie like this. Ariel, in my opinion, is a selfish spoiled brat who doesn’t know who she is. She then falls for an innocent guy who also doesn’t know who he is. Ariel doesn’t listen to her father, who tells her to stay away from humans for her own personal safety. But if Ariel doesn’t listen to anything her father tells her, what makes us think she’s going to listen to Eric when he has something to say?
I actually think in the movie’s story, Ariel’s father is innocent in this whole mess. It’s not his fault with what happens to her. The film tries to blame him as being too stubborn and pig headed, and wants us to believe he should just let his daughter go because she’s “following her dreams” and wants to “be herself”. But the fact is, Ariel knows nothing about how the world works. She has absolutely no discipline for herself, and quite frankly her friends aren’t any help either. Who do we see her hanging around with all the time? A 12 year old kid ?(Flounder) Why doesn’t a girl her age have any girlfriends? She seems like she’d be pretty and popular enough. If you want to try and make sense of it, imagine of this were a live action movie about a teenager. Why would she spend all her time with a 12 year old when she’s trying to figure out how to get laid? It’s like spending all your time with your little brother. So what about Sebastian, then? He tries to help her more than anyone, to the point of even singing a catchy Oscar winning song about why this thing with Eric is not going to work out and that she should stay Under the Sea. He’s right. He’s right the whole time. She abandons her father who only loves her and wants what’s best for her. She runs off to the most untrustworthy drug dealer in town (Ursula) trading her “voice” for ecstasy…I mean legs…that will make her “human” so she can meet and fall in love with Eric. But then she gets into trouble when she blows the whole thing, dragging first her friends into her problems, then her father, who has to turn over his entire kingdom and get himself turned into a kelp pol-lop so his daughter can be saved, and then finally getting Eric involved to fight and kill a gigantic Ursula for her. At the end of the film her father forgets everything his daughter just put him through and decides to reward her for being selfish and spoiled by giving her ecstasy (I mean legs) so she can go on and live happily ever after with her new chump husband Eric, who apparently never got the memo that every time he hangs around this girl, the threat of getting himself killed increases. If you need more convincing, just look at the people she associates with! Power hungry drug dealer witches? A clueless father? An angry crab she never listens too? A 12 year old boy? Who is this girl??
I saw this movie the first time when I was 8 years old. Admittedly at that age you’re not going to understand all the things that are wrong with a movie, except that if it’s entertaining and you’re having a good time that’s all that really matters to you. Well, it wasn’t enough for a person like me later on when I started watching the films I liked at the time (or thought I liked) and then realizing these movies were not good for me at all! The Little Mermaid in particular made me crazy and upset because when the end of the film came, I was so terrified and embarrassed of the giant Ursula scaring me that I had to keep it all inside. I kept it inside out of fear of being ridiculed by my then classmates in 2nd grade who all loved the film, because lets face it, admitting you were terrified from a Disney film at that age isn’t exactly cool. I had to hide it from my friends, and this terrifying nightmare of a film always stuck with me. I feared as well the mean-spiritedness from others who would laugh me off to the side if I admitted the film scared me. I had no idea how to handle a movie like this at all, and nobody to help me during that time. So I had to figure it all out on my own.
It’s not that I’m mad at these people, its just perpetuated ignorance from all parties involved, including the filmmakers. I’m certain they had no real intention of frightening or upsetting young kids. But at the same time it’s the filmmakers themselves who could not see that the story might be going in a bad direction. This is not a good movie. It’s not a good movie because it teaches children all the wrong things to expect out of life. You have to look at the original Anderson tale to understand what the story was really trying to say. In the actual story of The Little Mermaid, the mermaid dies. She dies because her own ignorance and self righteousness catches up with her, and it happens when the prince decides he’s not in love with her and runs off to marry somebody else. She fails, and she’s turned into salt water. The message of that story is what happens when we gamble our lives, when we are willing to risk giving up our existence over a petty infatuation. The original story shows us how dangerous that can be. It’s dangerous to give into our emotional impulses without consulting with someone or ourselves to know if this is the right choice. The movie flops the message completely saying now that you will get what you want if you gamble your life on something that might not turn out the way you expect. In the movie Ariel never learns anything from her experience. Somehow we’re supposed to believe the lesson is that she had to learn to get along with her father. But her father isn’t on her mind at all during the whole time she’s human. During the scenes where Ariel is human on land, we cut away at one point where Triton discovers Ariel had run away and he’s afraid and upset, feeling guilt for shouting at her. We cut back to Ariel, and she’s having the time of her life not giving her father a second thought that she might be worrying him or feeling guilty that she’s upsetting him. She just wants to snag her prince. At the end her father has to sacrifice his life and his power and kingdom to save her, and what happens after the witch dies and everything is back to normal? He lets her go. Which if you think about it was probably the smartest move on his part, because now the problems of his daughter are dumped on somebody else, and since Triton lives in the ocean and Ariel’s been changed into the human, she won’t be making any visits to daddy anytime soon, at least until somebody invents diving equipment to she can go to the kingdom and visit her father. So unless he really wants to show up to the surface and change her back into a mermaid, he could do it but why would he want to anyway if he really feels he failed his daugther? If anything, call it a happy ending for Triton and a sad depressing ending for Eric who now gets to find out on his own what a selfish washout Ariel really is. Triton at least can now move on with his life, knowing that he at least did something right with his 6 other daughters, who would never selfishly run out on him. So in that sense, we gotta give Triton credit that he actually probably is a good honest guy (and a good father) just trying to make the best of his situation. It’s not really that Triton’s a control freak, and it’s not like his rules about merfolk staying in the ocean are part of a dictatorship. The guy does it to keep his people safe, so nobody else will get hurt. So of course when Ariel botches things up, and Triton is forced to turn his power over to Ursula, making her dictator/ ruler of the ocean, fucking over an entire kingdom because of one selfish girl who wanted to get laid by a boy…I think we can start to see now how crazy this movie really is. And we can start asking ourselves how movies like The Little Mermaid are influencing our children. How will a movie like this influence your children as teenagers when they get angry and decide to turn against you for their own selfish needs?
Yet, this is the movie that “saved” Disney from falling apart. It wasn’t because it was a good story. It wasn’t because the message was so important. It was because Disney knew exactly all the right buttons to push in its audience. They knew exactly what they could sell to an audience to make them believe the story was speaking to them in a way that sounded like it was important, when it wasn’t really at all. This film set up all the tactics used by filmmakers in animation from here on, when it came to manipulating audiences with wonderful songs, silly sidekick characters, and so on….all the elements that trick you into thinking this movie is an important event. It’s not that way at all. We allow ourselves to be taken in by it because of our backgrounds, because of our belief systems, because of everything we were told by our parents or what other people tell you you’re supposed to like about movies, animation, TV, film, etc. and never actually thinking for yourself that this kind of story might not be good for you or your kids who eat this stuff up on a daily basis. I don’t think people should be made angry by the fact that the entertainment industry is manipulating your children to seeing the world as if it’s just like the Disney Channel. But there comes a time when all kids need to learn to grow up, and wake up to their surroundings, their parents, their family, their friends, and even their own children when they have them. Your kids are made to think that protagonists like Ariel and every other Disney Princess is noble and dignified in their decisions to be free and be the person they want to be. But sadly, those princess thoughts about what it means to be free comes from a place of arrogance and selfish desire. It’s all the things that will blind kids from the real truth about themselves and their world. Many filmmakers making content for children in America are failing at their jobs are storytellers. Not everything they make is bad, there are still some movies and shows made that are spectacular stories. But it’s a problem because kids don’t know any better about what their watching. The filmmakers don’t know any better either about what they’re trying to say because their own belief systems about the world are blinding them when they tell their own stories to other people.
Ever notice now in a lot of children’s programming, it’s becoming more prevalent with adult themes, even if the themes are not appropriate for children or a children’s show? You can watch something like Adventure Time for instance, which is a a show that, quite frankly, has no idea what it’s audience is supposed to be. Kids laugh at the goofiness of it, but miss out on all the themes, which are not targeted at them at all and are trying to talk more to adults. That show would probably be better off as an Adult Swim kind of series. But you look at the majority of the shows that are doing this, and it’s frustrating. When I watch animated films, all the messages they want to communicate are adult messages, but they’re so convoluted in making the thing for kids the filmmakers don’t know who or what their aiming at when they think they’re trying to speak to adults and teenagers. You will notice however that when you look at Japanese Animation, they have a very clear definition as to what’s for adults and children. You just have to look at the films of Hayao Miyazaki, who has made movies for every age group, speaking DIRECTLY to that age group. All of his films are wonderful and beautifully told, and the messages of those films are understandable and clear to their audience age group. What happened in America was when a movie like The Little Mermaid came along, it may have been a whopping box office success, but it made things confusing for everyone about how we should tell stories for animation. When you look at animation that was produced before The Little Mermaid in the 80’s, it may not have been perfect, but those filmmakers at least knew who their audience was. The Secret of Nimh, The Last Unicorn, Rankin/Bass, Heavy Metal, The Adventures of Mark Twain, Who Framed Roger Rabbit. I even like to give credit to movies like The Black Cauldron, a film that Disney like’s to consider a bad wart on their list of films, but the one thing we can admire about that movie is it it had balls. It tried to do something different, and it was Disney’s attempt to try and make something more adult. The same happened with Atlantis and Treasure Planet. It’s not that any of those films were a bad idea, but what happened is that Disney wasn’t willing to let go of their child audience, and as a result those movies failed because there were too many mixed messages to its audience members. So if you’re a filmmaker and you are watching these movies, it’s a good idea to ask yourself who the movie is for, and what is it supposed to be about? You can tell it’s a problem when you can’t answer those two questions by the end of the movie. It’s not a bad thing if you cant answer the second question if the movie has a lot of themes running through it. But if you are watching a film where the message should be obvious, you need t ask yourself again if you were actually receiving the intended message. In most cases, you may not be. Yet this is what plagues many animated films made in America. For many of us as audience members, we may come up with our own personal reasons for why these movies are supposed to be great. But when we don’t want to face what’s really there, we make up many reasons in our heads to justify to others why these movies are supposed to be good. But they might not be.
This is just my own personal feeling as to why animation today is bad for our children. We have an important job as storytellers, and it’s not about raising kids on our own personal bias’ or religious beliefs. What it is about, being a storyteller, is finding that center place that communicates directly with your audience. The power of every great story are the things we all carry with us through life. Every great movie you love that everyone can agree on (a movie like Star Wars for instance) has a message that resonates with everyone inside. It speaks to us all as people and the true life adventure experiences that every individual faces. It’s not simply about getting what you want all the time for selfish reasons, it’s about teaching others to get what they want out of life, so that other people can see the amazing person they are inside and inspire those people to find the things they want most in life on their own, and in turn share the same feeling with others. It’s the worlds most powerful butterfly effect. Story isn’t just about teaching you how to surviving in this world, it’s about teaching others to find their own path in life, and finding your place in the world as a human being. And it’s not all happy endings, sometimes we have to show the bad stuff too! Because showing a bad end teaches children and adults in a safe way not to take that path in life, and what happens when we stop listening to the universe and believe ourselves to be alone in this world. The truth is, you’re never alone at all, even if you happen to be by yourself at the time. That’s what great storytelling teaches you and the tremendous power it has to help people find their way. Pay attention to the stories you watch, especially the ones being told to your children.
A brand new gallery has been added to my website. Now you can see all the cartoon animation murals I’ve done in the past. Check them out here! Or click on the Carton Murals link on the header bar.
Today I present a photo tour of Hollywood, with my special guest, Horror Film Historian Jason Andreasson (creator and co-host of the terrific podcast Terror Transmission) and also joining us was his lovely partner, Hutton Dart. We visited several major locations, including the Hollywood Museum, a few famous shooting locations, Protek Film Vaults, George Barris’ Car Shop in Toluca Lake (the man who built the original 60’s Batmobile, K.I.T.T. from Knightrider, and the Munster’s car), and a personal grand tour of the Walt Disney Studios Lot in Burbank! Here we go!
First stop, Jason is standing next to the Hot Dog Show building in Burbank, which can be seen (from the image above) in the 1956 classic horror film, Invasion Of The Body Snatchers.
ABOVE: Jason and Hutton are standing in the middle of Protek Film Vaults in Burbank. Protek is a major three vault storage facility for the major studios. Many of the most important and well known films in Hollywood history are stored within these vaults.
BELOW: our visit to the Hollywood Museum next to the corner of Hollywood and Highland.
Max Factor’s Clockwork Orange Beauty Calibration Machine.
Next stop, George Barriss Custom Cars in Toluca Lake. BELOW: I’m standing next to one of (I think 5) of the original Batmobiles built for the 1960’s TV series. (The Black car behind the Batmobile is K.I.T.T. from Knightrider)
And now…we take you on the Backlot of Walt Disney Studios!
It was thrill getting to take Jason and Hutton around to these historical landmarks, as they have always been on my must-see list despite being in my very own backyard! It gives me the perfect excuse to check these places out. This won’t be the last tour I take with my friends, who will definitely be coming back for more Hollywood adventures later on.
To close our trip, Jason has a little farewell for message for you.
Today, February 7th marks the 73rd Anniversary of Walt Disney’s second animated feature film, “Pinocchio“. Pinocchio may be the most important Disney film of my childhood. It’s the first animated film I remember seeing with any clarity on how I really felt about it. It’s not only a terrific movie, but like most of us who remember watching it, it’s frightening as all hell! It wasn’t the kind of fear that drove me away from watching it though, but the kind that led me to obsess and watch the movie over and over again. There’s the obvious reasons I liked it of course a kid, because it is about a little boy. But I think I really wanted to understand why the movie fascinated me so much. The funny thing is, I feel that when all of us we’re kids and we watched a movie over and over again, the benifit of having that child perspective is that we always watch the film again as if we’re seeing it for the first time. We look at it as if something is going to change or we’re going to see something different, even though we kinda know the movie always goes to the same place. Every time I’d watch Pinocchio again, I’d always think…well maybe he’ll make the right choice this time! Maybe he’ll know to stay away from the Fox, or Stromboli, or the Coachman. But then of course the movie would play out as it is, and I would wind up getting scared all over again! As a film with scary imagery in it though, I always felt like it was a good kind of scary. Thinking of films like this reminded me of a time when filmmakers we’re not afraid to frighten children in movies. I always thought it was important to show this stuff in movies for kids because its a safe way for kids to see something bad happen to a character (like a little boy or a girl) and remind you to watch out, and be careful, because there’s always going to be someone out there trying to trick you, or possibly harm you for their own personal gain. With a movie like Pinocchio, you get to watch somebody else suffering the consequences of their actions without you yourself getting into the same trouble, which is an important teaching tool in storytelling.
It’s interesting watching this film now 25 years later from an adult perspective, and one of the things I always thought was amusing was that the villains that frightened me so much in the movie we’re actually very funny. The main one I speak of is Stromboli, which may hold the place for me as my favorite Disney villain. I say favorite, because as a kid he was the one character that frightened me the most and gave me nightmares. But in seeing the character again as an adult, I came to discover he’s not only very funny, he’s also beautifully animated, and the animation comes from a place of raw, pure emotion.
Stromboli was also animated by my favorite Disney Animator, the great Bill Tytla. Tytla was among the first batch of supervising animators before The Nine Old Men came along, with him, Freddy Moore, Norm Ferguson, and Hamilton Luske. These animators fell by the wayside when they couldn’t keep up with the increasing demands of Walt when he wanted to expand and evolve the actual drawing of animation and take it to new places. But Disney Animation would not be what it is today, and there would be no Nine Old Men without these four supervising animators, who broke ground and were the foundation of everything Disney was to become. Disney’s first5 feature films were made under these me, which are probably still their best, Snow White, Pinocchio, Fantasia, Dumbo, and Bambi. By the time Disney returned to features in the 50’s after the war years with Cinderella, you can see they began settling down with a kind of house style. That’s not to say those later films don’t have their own particular artistic achievements. But those first 5 films in my opinion are the most powerful, and the most emotional which set up everything to make Disney the studio it would become.
As far as Bill Tytla goes, his animation was the most powerful and emotional of all of them. Not surprising when I looked up his birthday, he’s a Scorpio like me! Scorpios are natrually inclined to striking to the heart of something, and holding up the mirror of truth to others. Tytla as an animator is a prime example of this. He was considered a very quiet soft spoken man in real life, but when it came to putting pencil to paper, everything he animated was channeled through emotional intuition. If anything, he‘s the one animator I aspire to be like, because in my own work while I know the mechanics of how animation works, what matters the most to me is finding the flow and letting the performance of the character guide me as I’m doing it. I have to investigate further as to how much of Tytla’s animation was planned (doing thumbnail drawings, acting poses, etc) and how much of it was improvised straight ahead. In animation there’s three methods of animating. The first is pose to pose, where you plan out all the character‘s acting poses and fill in the inbetween parts. The second is straight ahead, in which you just start from drawing one and improvise the performance. Then the third is a combination of straight ahead and pose to pose, where you animate the performance straight through in a first rough pass, find the key poses/ drawings you want, which become like guide posts. In this intuitive fashion, it’s more like letting the character tell me you what it wants to do, and finding ways to hit certain beats in the performance that accomodate the acting. For an animator like Tytla, I think was important for him to operate in this fashion, because while it’s true that the character is always coming from the artist, the most important aspect to animating is treating the character as if they’re their own person, telling you what it wants. I like to practice more doing straight ahead animation like Tytla, because there’s just an incredible energy you can’t match when doing everything pose to pose. It also takes a certain fearlessness to go there as well, when you are ready to trust your gut with how the performance is going to turn out.
Tytla was the master of straight ahead animation. There is a sequence in particular in Snow White that he did which is considered a groundbreaking performance. It’s the scene where Snow White kisses Grumpy on the forehead. He resists at first and storms a way, but then his angry emotions suddenly melt into a soft, momentary feeling of happiness when he realizes he likes the kiss. It’s one of the few moments Grumpy drops his guard. It was groundbreaking for its time because nobody had attempted that kind of sophistication in an animation performance before.
Tytla was not only a master of emotion, but also of weight and timing. In the Mickey Mouse short, “The Brave Little Tailor”, he animated the giant. He was also responsible for the powerful performances of Chernabog (The Devil on Bald Mountain), Stromboli, Monstro the Whale, and was also supervising animator for non other than…..Dumbo. Yes, the guy who animated Satan also animated Dumbo. There are two sequences in particular that are pure wonderful Tytla moments…the scene where Dumbo is being bathed by his mother, and the other is the “Baby Mine” song sequence, the moment where Dumbo’s mother cradles him with her trunk while being trapped in her cage.
It’s really Tytla’s performace with Stromboli that is my favorite, and what I consider his most engaging and emotional. It’s because Stromboli’s emotions are like a time bomb, jumping from humor to instant rage in a split second. That and having no qualms about chopping little wooden boys into kindling!
Keep in mind this animation was done before the much more stringent draftsmanship skill was attached to Disney characters. That’s not to say at all that the character of Stromboli doesn’t have a tremendous draftsmanship skill attached to it. But look at how exaggerated the limbs are, how loose and giggly his belly is. Putting too much in the way of anatomy and accurate drawing skill would restrain a character like this too much. He has to be much more bombastic and wild. The accuracy of the drawing skill is nowhere near as important as communicating the manic side and unpredictable, crazy energy of this character. This is the kind of animation I prefer so much more! It’s so amazing to watch. As much as I like the later Disney films, it’s really this youthful energy that just became absent after awhile.
This next sequence is the part of the film that takes place in Stromboli’s Wagon. This entire sequence is not just a great piece of animation, but it’s a powerful demonstration of filmmaking. The entire sequence has to be storyboarded and laid out to play off of Stromboli’s manic personality, which is at the center. There are high points and low points interspersed as if conducting a symphony, and meanwhile the energy has to build to the point where Stromboli throws Pinocchio into the cage. What’s interesting too is that for the first half of the sequence there’s no music. It only builds up after Pinocchio is put in the cage. The actual performance of Stromboli plays on practically every note, from delight, to anger, to daintiness, to murderous rage, but the entire sequence is carefully planned out to bring order to the manic behavior, as if conducting a symphony. When you watch the story, the actual filmmaking never gets in the way of the performances, and how the characters are supposed to act and play off of one another. It supports both characters perfectly. It’s pure intuitive construction of the sequence, and it’s in my opinion one of the most brilliant animated sequences ever put on film. Take a look:
Finally, here’s a nice Pencil Test of Tytla’s animation for the line, “Goodnight…my little goldmine!”
This is just a prime example of all the great things animation could be if we allowed it to go there again. It doesn’t always have to be about polished drawing skill. Bill Tytla was one of those animators who was capable of getting inside and making something out of raw emotion. He was said to be very intense when he worked, but the results are there when you look at his incredible animation.
I will be writing more posts later on about Tytla, as well as the other great supervising animators, Fergy, Freddy, and Hammy (okay Ham, he probably didn’t like being called Hammy).